- Queen 51-30 BC.
The last of the Macedonian rulers of Egypt, Cleopatra VII has been preserved in legend as a woman of formidable intellect and ambition who used her beauty and charm to advance Egypt's fortunes. In 51 BC, she became joint ruler with her father Ptolemy XII Auletes (who died in 51 BC) and then with her brother and husband, Ptolemy XIII. When he died in 47 BC, her younger brother (also her husband) Ptolemy XIV succeeded him.Rome, attracted by Egypt's wealth, had influenced Ptolemaic policy for some time; Pompey, an important figure in the East, involved himself in the internal and financial affairs of Ptolemy XII Auletes and when Auletes died, Pompey was appointed by the Roman Senate to act as the legal guardian of Cleopatra VII and her brother. Pompey's ambitions brought him into conflict with Julius *Caesar and, after defeat at the Battle of Pharsalia (47 BC), Pompey fled to Egypt where he was assassinated by Egyptian courtiers.When *Caesar came to Alexandria, (48—47 BC) Cleopatra persuaded him to support her cause, hoping to strengthen her position and to regain her throne. Their son, Ptolemy XV Caesarion, ruled jointly with Cleopatra from 36 BC.The queen's subsequent liaison with Mark *Antony was of longer duration; again, she hoped that he would help her to restore Egypt to its past glory by using Rome's powers to enhance the fortunes of her allies and clients. She hoped that her marriage to Mark *Antony would provide her with the opportunity to divide the eastern possessions between themselves.There were children from her associations with both *Caesar and *Antony. In 34 BC, Cleopatra and *Antony staged the great ceremony known as the Donations of Alexandria, at which some of the eastern provinces and anticipated conquests were assigned to Cleopatra and her children. Thus Cleopatra obtained Egypt, Cyprus, Libya and Coele Syria, while Alexander Helios received Armenia, Media and Parthia. Ptolemy was given Phoenicia, Syria and Cilicia, and Cleopatra Selene gained Cyrene. Mark *Antony had to justify to the Roman Senate this disposal of property. He did this by claiming that he was merely presenting Roman territory to Rome's clients.Mark *Antony was an astute man, and from 37 BC onwards his close association with Cleopatra brought him both money and supplies. *Augustus (Octavian) regarded *Antony (who had married his sister) and his Egyptian power-base as an eastern threat to Roman ascendancy. He waged a successful propoganda campaign against Mark *Antony and the Egyptian queen and persuaded the Roman Senate that *Antony had spent years in debauchery and drunkenness at Alexandria. Antony was denounced as an enemy of Rome and military action soon followed: *Augustus defeated him at the Battle of Actium in western Greece in the September of 31 BC. For some unknown reason, Cleopatra withdrew her squadron when the battle was raging and, followed by Mark *Antony, fled to Alexandria. Here they awaited *Augustus, who arrived ten months later. Alexandria was captured and *Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, the queen preferring death to the inevitable humiliation that submission to Rome would have brought. According to legend, she used a snake's bite to end her life on August 12, 30 BC. *Augustus could not allow her son Caesarion to live, but her children by Mark *Antony apparently survived and ruled Egypt nominally for eighteen days before *Augustus became pharaoh on August 31, 30 BC.Cleopatra was a remarkable woman and a formidable queen. She was reputedly the only *Ptolemaic ruler to learn to speak Egyptian (which endeared her to her native subjects) and was also fluent in several other languages. The coins which depict her likeness do not support the legend of her great beauty, but a marble bust in Berlin shows something of her character and physical charm.BIBL. Bell, H.I. Egypt from Alexander the Great to the Arab Conquest. Oxford: 1956; Austin, M.M. The Hellenistic world from Alexander to the Roman conquest. Cambridge: 1981.Biographical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt by Rosalie and Antony E. David
Ancient Egypt. A Reference Guide. EdwART. 2011.
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Cleopatra VII — Cleopatra redirects here. For other uses, see Cleopatra (disambiguation). Cleopatra VII Philopator … Wikipedia
Cleopatra VII — «Cleopatra» redirige aquí. Para otras acepciones, véase Cleopatra (desambiguación). Cleopatra VII Reina Faraón de la Dinastía Ptolemaica Reinado … Wikipedia Español
Cleopatra VII — Cleopatra es un nombre griego que significa «el orgullo de su padre». Cleopatra Filopator Nea Thea, Cleopatra VII, fue la última reina de Egipto, de la dinastía helénica de los Ptolomeo, aquella que fue creada por Ptolomeo I Sóter, general de… … Enciclopedia Universal
Cleopatra VII — (69–30 BC) Last queen of Egypt. The daughter of Ptolemy XI, she came to the throne when she was seventeen and reigned with her brother Ptolemy XII, whom she had married according to the Egyptian royal custom. A short while later she quarrelled … Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament
Cleopatra VII — (69 30 BC) famous Egyptian queen … English contemporary dictionary
Cleopatra VII Philopator — (c. 69–30 BC) Egyptian queen. Daughter of Ptolemy XII and possibly Cleopatra VI Tryphaena. She succeeded her father alongside her younger brother and consort, Ptolemy XIII, with whom she soon fell out. Their civil war was interrupted by the… … Ancient Egypt
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Estatua de basalto negro de Cleopatra VII — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Imagen de la estatua de Cleopatra de Egipto en el Museo Hermitage de San Petesburgo … Wikipedia Español
Cleopatra V of Egypt — Cleopatra V Tryphaena of Egypt (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα, born c. 95 BC, died c. 69/68 BC or c. 57 BC) was a Ptolemaic Queen of Egypt. She is the only surely attested wife of Ptolemy XII. Contents 1 Descent and marriage 2 Death and identity … Wikipedia
CLEOPATRA° — CLEOPATRA°, a name common to several Egyptian queens, the most important of whom are the following: CLEOPATRA I, daughter of antiochus iii and Laodice, daughter of mithridates , king of Pontus. Antiochus III, taking advantage of Egypt s weakness … Encyclopedia of Judaism